Original Research

Prevalence and associated risk factors for anaemia amongst pregnant women attending three antenatal clinics in Eswatini

Rumbidzai C. Dodzo, Ropo E. Ogunsakin, Themba G. Ginindza
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 14, No 1 | a3339 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v14i1.3339 | © 2022 Rumbidzai Chengetai Dodzo, Ropo Ebenezer Ogunsakin, Themba Geoffrey Ginindza | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 16 November 2021 | Published: 25 April 2022

About the author(s)

Rumbidzai C. Dodzo, Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, Ministry of Health, Eswatini
Ropo E. Ogunsakin, Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Themba G. Ginindza, Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa


Background: Anaemia is a global health problem affecting about a third of the world’s population. In pregnancy, it is a public health concern with consequences for mothers and infants, including maternal death and infant mortality. In low-income countries (LICs), 25% indirect maternal mortality and 30% neonatal deaths are due to anaemia in pregnancy.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risks associated with anaemia amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in three health facilities in Eswatini.

Setting: This study was conducted in three health facilities in Eswatini, namely Mankayane, Raleigh Fitkin Memorial (RFM) and Mbabane Hospital.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used non-probability sampling in three hospitals of Eswatini, to select 550 pregnant women, aged 15–49 years. Data were collected from January to March 2021, using face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.

Results: A total of 550 pregnant women were included in the study. Anaemia prevalence amongst pregnant women was 43.1% with mild, moderate and severe cases of 21.3%; 21.1% and 0.7%, respectively. Prevalence was high amongst women aged 15–19 years (53.3%). Factors associated with anaemia included living in urban areas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–2.72), having anaemia 6 months before pregnancy (OR: 4.64; CI: 1.15–18.71), and gestational age at first ANC: third trimester (OR = 10.42; CI: 4.27–25.4) and second trimester (OR: 1.62; CI: 1.02–2.60).

Conclusion: Anaemia remains prevalent amongst pregnant women in Eswatini. A comprehensive anaemia prevention programme would be justified and could lower the country’s burden of anaemia.


anaemia; pregnant women; prevalence; risk factors; Eswatini


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Crossref Citations

1. Prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in a district hospital and its feeder community healthcare centre of the Limpopo Province, South Africa
Thembelihle S. Ntuli, Oratilwe P. Mokoena, Eric Maimela, Khanyisa Sono
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care  vol: 12  issue: 11  first page: 2708  year: 2023  
doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_136_23