Original Research

Prevalence, phenomenology and personality characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder among female students at Zagazig University, Egypt

Seham M. Eldeeb, Afaf M. Eladl, Amany Elshabrawy, Amira M. Youssef, Mona H. Ibrahim
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 13, No 1 | a2924 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v13i1.2924 | © 2021 Seham Mahmoud Eldeeb, Afaf Mahmoud Eladl, Amany Elshabrawy, Amira Mohamed Youssef, Mona Hamed Ibrahim | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 January 2021 | Published: 30 August 2021

About the author(s)

Seham M. Eldeeb, Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Afaf M. Eladl, Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Amany Elshabrawy, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Amira M. Youssef, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Mona H. Ibrahim, Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Abstract

Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a female psychiatric disorder affecting the behaviour, cognitive abilities, mental health status and academic performance of female students. It includes: mood symptoms, behaviour symptoms and physical symptoms.

Aim: To assess phenomenology, measure the prevalence of PMDD among university students and assess the relationship between PMDD and socio-demographic and personality characteristics.

Setting: This study was conducted at Zagazig University, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2020 to December 2020. It included 755 university students. They filled several questionnaires covering Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders (DSM-5) criteria to diagnose PMDD, socio-demographic, menstrual factors, physical activity and personality traits.

Results: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was found in 159 out of 755 students (21.1%). Overall, the most frequently reported premenstrual symptoms were overeating/food cravings (84.2%), fatigue/lack of energy (83.6%), depressed mood/hopelessness (82.0%) and hypersomnia (78.9%). Binary logistic regression model revealed that significantly related PMDD risk factors include: being a medical student, having a duration of menstrual bleeding ≥ 7 days, the average length of one cycle ˂ 28 days, high menstrual blood loss, presence of dysmenorrhea and positive family history of premenstrual syndrome (sister/mother). Regarding personality traits, low extroversion and agreeableness, and high neuroticism were also significant PMDD risk factors.

Conclusion: Prevalence of PMDD was high among university students, especially medical students, and it can have a detrimental effect on both academic life and educational accomplishments, quality of life and daily living activities.


Keywords

premenstrual dysphoric disorder; premenstrual phenomena; university students; prevalence; personality characteristics

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