Original Research

Prevalence and biosocial determinants of hypertension in a rural population in Edo State, Southern Nigeria

Oghenekaro G. Egbi, Sulaiman D. Ahmed, Roli Madubuko
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 13, No 1 | a2833 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v13i1.2833 | © 2021 Oghenekaro G. Egbi, Sulaiman D. Ahmed, Roli Madubuko | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 November 2020 | Published: 01 July 2021

About the author(s)

Oghenekaro G. Egbi, Department of Internal Medicine, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; and, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Sulaiman D. Ahmed, Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
Roli Madubuko, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria


Background: Hypertension is a public health threat of global concern with increasing prevalence in many countries, including Nigeria.

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in a rural agrarian community in Edo North, Nigeria.

Setting: The study was carried out in Ayua, a community in Edo North, southern Nigeria.

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved the use of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and glucose were recorded. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.

Results: Two hundred and nineteen participants aged > 15 years completed the study with a mean age of 54.03 ± 16.61 years and females comprising 159 (72.6%) of the total. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.9% (in 61 participants). Twenty-one (9.8%) respondents gave a family history of hypertension. The mean BMI amongst respondents was 27.10 ± 6.61 kg/m2. Obesity and pre-obesity were found in 58 (26.5%) and 71(32.4%) respondents, respectively. The determinants of hypertension were age and BMI. Compared with those who were less than 40 years old, those aged 40–65 years and > 65 years had 1.9 and 4.2 times increased odds of developing hypertension, respectively. Similarly, compared with the non-obese, obese participants had 2.3 times increased odd of having hypertension.

Conclusion: Hypertension was highly prevalent in this rural community. Health sensitisation and intervention programmes are recommended in rural communities for early detection and management of hypertension, especially amongst older and obese adults.


blood pressure; body mass index; hypertension; obese; rural community


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