Original Research

Co-occurrence of non-communicable disease risk factors among adolescents in Jos, Nigeria

Olutomi Y. Sodipo, Tolulope O. Afolaranmi, Hadiza A. Agbo, Esther A. Envuladu, Luret A. Lar, Emilia A. Udofia, Ayuba I. Zoakah
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 16, No 1 | a4342 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v16i1.4342 | © 2024 Olutomi Y. Sodipo, Tolulope O. Afolaranmi, Hadiza A. Agbo, Esther A. Envuladu, Luret A. Lar, Emilia A. Udofia, Ayuba I. Zoakah | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 October 2023 | Published: 15 February 2024

About the author(s)

Olutomi Y. Sodipo, Department of Community Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Tolulope O. Afolaranmi, Department of Community Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; and Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Hadiza A. Agbo, Department of Community Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; and Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Esther A. Envuladu, Department of Community Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; and Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Luret A. Lar, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Emilia A. Udofia, Department of Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
Ayuba I. Zoakah, Department of Community Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; and Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: The co-occurrence and clustering of risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is a global public health concern.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the co-occurrence and clustering of risk factors for NCDs among in-school and out-of-school adolescents in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Setting: Secondary schools and markets in Jos North Local Government Area.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 377 in-school and 377 out-of-school adolescents, aged 10–19 years of age. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on behavioural and physical risk factors for NCDs. Chi-square and Mann–Whitney U tests were used for comparisons at a 5% level of significance. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) version 23.0.

Results: Of the 754 sampled adolescents, 386 (51.2%) were females and 368 (48.8%) were males. Adolescents aged 10–14 years made up 37.8% of the participants, 15 to 17 years of age accounted for 46.9% and 18–19 years 15.3%. Risk factors with the highest prevalence were a sedentary lifestyle (94.2%) and an unhealthy diet (92.4%). Majority (97.2%) had two or more risk factors while 1.9% of adolescents had no risk factor. More in-school adolescents (24.1%) had two risk factors compared to 14.1% of out-of-school adolescents (p < 0.001); 14.1% of out-of-school adolescents had five or more risk factors compared to 2.9% of those in school (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Co-occurrence and clustering of behavioural and physical risk factors was found among both in-school and out-of-school adolescents.

Contribution: This study highlighted the burden of risk factors for NCDs among both in-school and out-of-school adolescents in the North-Central part of Nigeria. This is especially useful in developing targeted interventions to tackle these risk factors.


Keywords

non-communicable diseases; risk factors; adolescents; co-occurrence; Nigeria.

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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