Original Research - Special Collection: Pain Management and Palliative Care

Development of a pain self-management intervention framework for people with spinal cord injury

Mokgadi K. Mashola, Elzette Korkie, Diphale J. Mothabeng
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 15, No 1 | a4039 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v15i1.4039 | © 2023 Mokgadi K. Mashola, Elzette Korkie, Diphale J. Mothabeng | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 February 2023 | Published: 26 October 2023

About the author(s)

Mokgadi K. Mashola, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Elzette Korkie, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Diphale J. Mothabeng, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract

Background: Pain is the most common reason for medical visits to primary health care practitioners. Pain self-management interventions are encouraged and there is no known self-management intervention framework available that clinicians and people with spinal cord injury (PWSCI) can use to guide treatment selection.

Aim: This study aimed to develop a pain self-management intervention framework for PWSCI.

Setting: Online and facilitated in Gauteng, South Africa.

Methods: A three-round modified e-Delphi method was used to reach an 80% consensus among a 21-expert panel. Fifty-nine interventions were distributed via REDCap and a final online audio meeting was held to either include or exclude interventions in the final framework. SPSS v27 was used to analyse descriptive data and content analysis was used for qualitative responses.

Results: The final developed pain self-management framework consists of 56 interventions and includes interventions from multiple health professions to encompass medical, psychological, therapeutic and social interventions. Interventions are also specified for nociceptive and/or neuropathic pain and grouped according to the biopsychosocial model.

Conclusion: The interprofessional framework may be used as a guideline for PWSCI to alleviate pain, as well as assist health professionals in clinical decision-making, by providing them with the freedom to choose acceptable and adequate interventions that may be appropriate to treat the affected individual’s pain.

Contribution: Pain management is a basic need at the primary healthcare level and PWSCI need access to the broad range of interventions available to manage their pain. The framework highlights the variety of appropriate interventions to guide both health professionals and PWSCI with pain relief options.


Keywords

modified e-Delphi; pain; self-management; spinal cord injury; treatment.

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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