Original Research

Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment among older adults in a hospital in southern Nigeria

Amaefuna C. Anieto, Akinwumi O. Owolabi, Mojisola O. Owolabi, Anthony I. Nwajei, Mabel O. Onwuka
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 15, No 1 | a3942 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v15i1.3942 | © 2023 Amaefuna C. Anieto, Akinwumi O. Owolabi, Mojisola O. Owolabi, Anthony I. Nwajei, Mabel O. Onwuka | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 01 December 2022 | Published: 25 April 2023

About the author(s)

Amaefuna C. Anieto, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
Akinwumi O. Owolabi, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
Mojisola O. Owolabi, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
Anthony I. Nwajei, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
Mabel O. Onwuka, Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: About 63% of people living with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Emerging evidence suggests that early risk factors for the development of MCI and dementia can be modified by public health and preventive intervention approaches.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of MCI in older adult patients and its relationship with some risk factors.

Setting: The study was conducted among older adults at the Geriatric Clinic of the Family Medicine Department of a hospital in southern Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 160 subjects aged 65 years and above over a period of 3 months. Socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects were accessed for impaired cognition using the 10-word delay recall test scale. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: There were 64 males and 96 females; male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Majority of the study population were in age range of 65–74 years. The overall prevalence of MCI was 59.4%. Respondents with tertiary education were 82% less likely to have MCI on logistic regression analysis (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.465–0.719).

Conclusion: Mild cognitive impairment was prevalent among older adults in this study and was found to be significantly associated with low level of education.

Contribution: It is therefore recommended that screening for MCI and known risk factors should be prioritized at geriatric clinics.


Keywords

mild cognitive impairment; dementia; risk factors; prevalence; older adults; geriatric clinic.

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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