Original Research

Factors affecting the implementation of a complex health intervention to improve insulin management in primary care: A SWOT analysis

Patrick Ngassa Piotie, Celia Filmalter, Maryangela G. Mohlala, Ntokozo Zulu, Amanda Segale, Charles Koenaite, Jane W. Muchiri, Elizabeth M. Webb, Paul Rheeder
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 14, No 1 | a3467 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v14i1.3467 | © 2022 Patrick Ngassa Piotie, Celia Filmalter, Maryangela G. Mohlala, Ntokozo Zulu, Amanda Segale, Charles Koenaite, Jane W. Muchiri, Elizabeth M. Webb, Paul Rheeder | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 February 2022 | Published: 04 July 2022

About the author(s)

Patrick Ngassa Piotie, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, University of Pretoria Diabetes Research Centre Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Celia Filmalter, Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Maryangela G. Mohlala, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Ntokozo Zulu, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Amanda Segale, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Charles Koenaite, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Jane W. Muchiri, Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Elizabeth M. Webb, School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, University of Pretoria Diabetes Research Centre Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
Paul Rheeder, University of Pretoria Diabetes Research Centre Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; and, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: In South Africa, initiating and managing insulin in primary care for people living with type 2 diabetes (PLWD) is a major challenge. To address these challenges, a multidisciplinary team from the University of Pretoria (South Africa) developed the Tshwane Insulin project (TIP) intervention.

Aim: To determine internal and external factors, either facilitators or barriers, that could influence the implementation of the TIP intervention and propose strategies to ensure sustainability.

Setting: Tshwane District, Gauteng province, South Africa.

Methods: We used the SWOT framework to qualitatively analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats influencing the implementation of the TIP intervention. Four field researchers and three managers from the TIP team participated in an online group discussion. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers (HCPs) (seven nurses, five doctors) and patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 13).

Results: Regardless of the identified weaknesses, the TIP intervention was accepted by PLWD and HCPs. Participants identified strengths including app-enabled insulin initiation and titration, pro-active patient follow-up, patient empowerment and provision of glucose monitoring devices. Participants viewed insulin resistance and the attitudes of HCPs as potential threats. Participants suggested that weaknesses and threats could be mitigated by translating education material into local languages and using the lived experiences of insulin-treated patients to address insulin resistance. The procurement of glucose monitoring devices by national authorities would promote the sustainability of the intervention.

Conclusion: Our findings may help decision-makers and health researchers to improve insulin management for PLWD in resource-constrained settings by using telehealth interventions.

 


Keywords

SWOT analysis; diabetes; type 2 diabetes; insulin management; health intervention; primary care; telehealth; community health workers

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