Original Research

Rural-urban inequities in childhood immunisation in Nigeria: The role of community contexts

Diddy Antai
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 3, No 1 | a238 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.238 | © 2011 Diddy Antai | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 October 2010 | Published: 22 September 2011

About the author(s)

Diddy Antai, Institute of Environmental, Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden The Angels Trust, Nigeria, Sweden


Context: Childhood vaccinations are one of the most cost-effective means of reducing negative child health outcomes. Despite the benefits of immunisation, inequities persist both between and within rural-urban areas in Nigeria.

Objectives: To assess the role of community contexts on rural-urban inequities in full immunisation uptake amongst children 12 months of age and older.

Methods: Data from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey including 6029 live born children from 3725 women aged 15–49 years were examined using multilevel regression analysis.

Results: Rural children were disadvantaged both in the proportion receiving full immunisation and individual vaccines. Contextual or community-level factors such as community prenatal care by doctor, community hospital delivery, and region of residence accounted for significant rural-urban inequities in full immunisation.

Conclusion: This study stresses the need for community-level interventions aimed at closing rural-urban inequities in the provision of maternal and child health care services.


Childhood vaccinations; communities; immunisation; multilevel regression analysis; Nigeria; rural-urban


Total abstract views: 7138
Total article views: 22422


Crossref Citations

1. Challenges in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Modelling of HPV Vaccines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Practice Recommendations
Obinna I. Ekwunife, James F. O’Mahony, Andreas Gerber Grote, Christoph Mosch, Tatjana Paeck, Stefan K. Lhachimi
PharmacoEconomics  vol: 35  issue: 1  first page: 65  year: 2017  
doi: 10.1007/s40273-016-0451-7