Original Research

Towards cardiovascular disease prevention in Nigeria: A mixed method study of how adolescents and young adults in a university setting perceive cardiovascular disease and risk factors

Nse A. Odunaiya, Temilade Adesanya, Emmanuel C. Okoye, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 13, No 1 | a2200 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v13i1.2200 | © 2021 Nse A. Odunaiya, Temilade B. Adesanya, Emmanuel C. Okoye, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 July 2019 | Published: 07 April 2021

About the author(s)

Nse A. Odunaiya, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Temilade Adesanya, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Emmanuel C. Okoye, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry Group, Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health And Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global problem but its increasing prevalence in the working age group in developing countries like Nigeria is concerning and needs urgent attention.

Methods: The study was a mixed method design: quantitative phase with 402 participants and qualitative phase with 16 participants in two focus groups. The participants in the quantitative survey phase completed two questionnaires on the knowledge and perception of CVD and its risk factors. Data from the quantitative cross-sectional survey were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The qualitative data were analysed using content thematic analysis.

Results: We report that 39.1% of the participants had high knowledge whilst 61.9% had low and average knowledge of CVD and its risk factors. Of the participants, 78.1% had a wrong perception of CVD and its risk factors. Participants from faculties of veterinary medicine and basic medical sciences had better knowledge than others who were not medically inclined (F = 16.11; p < 0.001). Only participants from the faculty of veterinary medicine had the right perception of CVD and its risk factors. There was no significant difference in knowledge and perception scores between male and female participants. The qualitative study buttressed the results from the cross-sectional survey, where adolescents and young adults highlighted academic stress and poverty as major risk factors for CVD.

Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults in this study did not have good knowledge of CVD and its risk factors. They also had a wrong perception about CVD and its risk factors.


Keywords

knowledge; perception; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; adolescents; young adults

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