Original Research

The development of the visual screening tool for anxiety disorders and depression: Addressing barriers to screening for depression and anxiety disorders in hypertension and/or diabetes

Zimbini Ogle, Liezl Koen, Dana J.H. Niehaus
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 10, No 1 | a1721 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v10i1.1721 | © 2018 Zimbini Ogle, Liezl Koen, Dana J.H. Niehaus | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 14 December 2017 | Published: 19 June 2018

About the author(s)

Zimbini Ogle, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Liezl Koen, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Stikland Psychiatric Hospital, Bellville, South Africa
Dana J.H. Niehaus, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Stikland Psychiatric Hospital, Bellville, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: There is a lack of screening tools for common mental disorders that can be applied across cultures, languages and levels of education in people with diabetes and hypertension.

 

Aim: To develop a visual screening tool for depression and anxiety disorders that is applicable across cultures and levels of education.

 

Setting: Participants were purposively recruited from two not-for-profit organisations and two public health facilities – a maternal mental health unit and a primary health care centre.

 

Method: This was a qualitative cross-sectional study. Thirteen drawings based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depicting symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression were drawn. Participants described emotions and thoughts depicted in the drawings. Data were analysed through content analysis.

 

Results: Thirty-one women (66%) and 16 men (34%) participated in the development of the visual screening tool. The mean age was 34 (standard deviation [SD] 12.46). There were 32 (68%) black participants, 11 (23%) mixed race participants and 4 (9%) white participants. Two participants (4%) had no schooling, 14 (31%) primary schooling, 8 (18%) senior schooling, 13 (29%) matric qualification and 8 (18%) had post-matric qualification. Participants correctly described 10 out of the 13 visual depiction of symptoms as associated with depression and anxiety disorders, with no differences between levels of education and cultural groups.

 

Conclusion: Ten drawings were appropriate for inclusion in the visual screening tool for anxiety disorders and depression (VISTAD). The VISTAD will be validated against the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) in a primary care population with hypertension and/or diabetes.


Keywords

visual screening tool; screening; depression; anxiety; diabetes; hypertension

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