Original Research

Geographical distribution and antibiotics susceptibility patterns of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae isolates from Kisumu County, Kenya

Silas O. Awuor, Eric O. Omwenga, Ibrahim I. Daud
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 12, No 1 | a2264 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2264 | © 2020 Silas O. Awuor, Eric O. Omwenga, Ibrahim I. Daud | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 07 October 2019 | Published: 08 December 2020

About the author(s)

Silas O. Awuor, Department of Health, School of Health Sciences, Kisii University, Kisii, Kenya
Eric O. Omwenga, Department of Health, School of Health Sciences, Kisii University, Kisii, Kenya
Ibrahim I. Daud, Kenya Medical Research Institute, United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Africa, HJF Medical Research International, Kericho, Kenya

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Background: Multiple drug resistance has become a major threat to the treatment of cholera. Recent studies in Kenya have described the epidemiology, especially the risk factors, of cholera; however, there is little information on the phenotypic and drug susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in outbreaks that in the recent past have occurred in western Kenya.

Aim: To characterise and determine the antibiotics’ susceptibility profiling of toxigenic V. cholerae isolates from Kisumu County.

Setting: The project was conducted in Kisumu County, Kenya.

Methods: A total of 119 V. cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, isolates collected during 2017 cholera outbreak in Kisumu County were used for this study. The samples were cultured on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar and biochemical tests were carried out using standard procedures. Susceptibility tests were conducted by using various conventional antibiotics against standard procedures.

Results: Of the 119 isolates, 101 were confirmed to be V. cholerae belonging to serotypes Inaba and Ogawa, with Inaba being the predominant serotype (73.95%). The isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), gentamycin (100%), doxycycline (99%), ceftriaxone (99%) and streptomycin (96.04%) antimicrobials, and resistant to erythromycin (53.47%), amoxicillin (64.4%), nalidixic acid (83.2%) and ampicillin (89.11%), with high resistance to cotrimoxazole (99%) and tetracycline (97%).

Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae was resistant to multiple antibiotics, including those commonly used in the management of cholera. Taken together, there is a need to carry out regular surveillance on antimicrobial drug resistance during outbreaks.


Vibrio cholerae; antimicrobial susceptibility; Kisumu; tetracycline; cotrimoxazole; Kenya


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