Original Research

Sensitivity and specificity of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT CareStatTM) compared with microscopy amongst under five children attending a primary care clinic in southern Nigeria

Oluwagbenga Ogunfowokan, Bamidele A. Ogunfowokan, Anthony I. Nwajei
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine | Vol 12, No 1 | a2212 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v12i1.2212 | © 2020 Oluwagbenga Ogunfowokan, Bamidele A. Ogunfowokan, Anthony I. Nwajei | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 26 July 2019 | Published: 17 June 2020

About the author(s)

Oluwagbenga Ogunfowokan, Lincoln University College, Selangor, Malaysia
Bamidele A. Ogunfowokan, The Ark Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
Anthony I. Nwajei, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria


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Abstract

Background: Malaria diagnosis using microscopy is currently the gold standard. However, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were developed to simplify the diagnosis in regions without access to functional microscopy.

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of mRDT CareStatTM with microscopy.

Setting: This study was conducted in the paediatric primary care clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study for diagnostic accuracy was conducted from May 2016 to October 2016. Ninety-eight participants were involved to obtain a precision of 5%, sensitivity of mRDT CareStatTM of 95% from published work and 95% level of confidence after adjusting for 20% non-response rate or missing data. Consecutive participants were tested using both microscopy and mRDT. The results were analysed using EPI Info Version 7.

Results: A total of 98 children aged 3–59 months were enrolled. Malaria prevalence was found to be 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46% – 60%), whilst sensitivity and specificity were 29% (95% CI = 20% – 38%) and 89% (95% CI = 83% – 95%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 75% (95% CI = 66.4% – 83.6%) and 53% (95% CI = 46% – 60%), respectively.

Conclusion: Agreement between malaria parasitaemia using microscopy and mRDT positivity increased with increase in the parasite density. The mRDT might be negative when malaria parasite density using microscopy is low.


Keywords

family medicine; primary care; education; mRDT; parasite density; sensitivity; specificity

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